EUIS SUNARTI

Membangun Ketahanan Keluarga dan SDM Indonesia Berkualitas

TEORI KELUARGA - EUIS SUNARTI

TEORI KELUARGA

April 5th, 2012

Teori-Teori Keluarga [1]

Kajian keluarga telah dimulai sejak tahun 1800-an, seiring dengan kebutuhan untuk memperbaiki atau menyelesaikan masalah-masalah sosial.  Hal tersebut menunjukkan pandangan bahwa keluarga berkaitan dengan banyak masalah sosial.  Contohnya adalah masalah sosial yang berkaitan dengan dampak peningkatan tingkat perceraian, dampak kekerasan, gerakan atau tuntutan hak memilih wanita, dan dampak industrialisasi.  Bahkan para pembaharu sosial memandang bahwa keluarga sebagai dasar kesehatan masyarakat.  Oleh karena itu perhatian beralih kepada kehidupan keluarga itu sendiri.  Keluarga dipandang sebagai institusi yang mudah pecah, sehingga perlu dilindungi.  Perubahan sosial yang berlangsung cepat, industrialisasi, dan urbanisasi dipandang sebagai faktor yang dapat menyebabkan disorganisasi keluarga (Thomas & Wilcox dalam Sussman & Steinmetz, 1987).

Teori keluarga berkembang sejak awal abad 1900-an, merupakan aplikasi teori sosiologi dalam institusi keluarga.  Urutan teori keluarga yang berkembang dimulai dengan teori interaksi simbolik (simbolic interactionism) sejak tahun 1918, teori struktural-fungsional (structural functionalism) sejak tahun 1930, teori perkembangan keluarga sejak tahun 1946, teori sistem, teori konflik sosial (social conflict), teori pertukaran sosial (social exchange), dan teori ekologi manusia (human ecology) sejak tahun 1960, serta teori konstruksi sosial (social construction of gender) sejak tahun 1980 (Boss, Doherty, LaRossa, Schumm, & Steinmetz, 1993).

Secara umum teori-teori keluarga yang berkembang dapat dibagi dua yaitu teori kontrol eksternal (external control) dan teori kekuatan maanusia (the power of people).  Teori kontrol eksternal memiliki pandangan bahwa manusia lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor di luar dirinya, dan yang termasuk teori ini adalah teori perkembangan keluarga, teori structural fungsionalism, dan teori social conflict.  Teori kekuatan manusia lebih menekankan kepada kekuatan manusia untuk menciptakan perilakunya dalam berpikir, berinterpretasi, dan memberikan arti kepada dunia.  Teori social exchange dan teori symbolic interaction termasuk ke dalam teori ini (Winton, 1995).

 

Teori Pertukaran Sosial

Teori pertukaran sosial pada intinya memandang individu sebagai makhluk yang rasional. Setiap aktivitas individu dikaitkan dengan tujuan untuk memaksimumkan penghargaan dan meminimalkan biaya.  Penghargaan bisa bersifat fisik seperti materi dan ekonomi, dan bersifat non fisik seperti emosi atau perasaan.  Teori ini percaya bahwa setiap interaksi sosial mendatangkan biaya.  Biaya paling minimal adalah waktu dan tenaga, yang lainnya adalah uang, dan emosi negatif seperti marah, frustasi, dan depresi.  Interaksi sosial juga mendatangkan penghargaan seperti rasa tenang, pandangan yang positif mengenai hidup, perasaan berguna dan dibutuhkan.  Teori ini memandang bahwa perceraian terjadi karena masing-masing pihak merasakan lebih besarnya biaya perkawinan dibandingkan manfaat yang diperoleh.

 

Teori Interaksi Simbolik

Perilaku manusia dipandang sebagai fungsi dari kemampuan manusia untuk berpikir kritis dan analitis.  Teori ini memfokuskan pada otonomi seseorang individu untuk membangun pola aksi melalui suatu proses pendefinisian dan interpretasi sasaran dan kejadian.  Otonomi individu tersebut bahkan menjadi alasan perilaku yang dapat melanggar aturan dan norma-norma sosial.

 

Teori Konflik Sosial

Teori konflik sosial memandang konflik sebagai suatu hal yang alamiah, normal, dan tidak dapat dielakkan dalam seluruh sistem sosial, bahkan konflik dianggap sebagai sumber motivasi yang dibutuhkan untuk perubahan.  Konflik ada di mana-mana, dalam semua jenis interaksi sosial, dan pada seluruh tingkat organisasi sosial.  Bahkan konflik dipandang sebagai elemen dasar kehidupan sosial manusia dan keberlangsungan sistem.  Besarnya (prevalensi) konflik individu dimotivasi oleh minat individu, dan berhubungan dengan kebutuhan, nilai, tujuan, dan sumberdaya.  Terhadap sumberdaya yang terbatas, terdapat dua kemungkinan konflik yaitu : 1) perbedaan minat, kebutuhan, nilai, dan tujuan, serta 2) individu berbeda dalam waktu bersamaan menginginkan hal yang sama pada sumberdaya terbatas (Winton, 1995; Klein &White, 1996; Farrington & Cheertook dalam Boss et al. 1993).

Menurut pandangan penganut teori konflik sosial, keluarga sebagai sistem juga tidak terlepas dari konflik antar anggota di dalamnya.  Terjadinya perceraian dipandang karena ketiadaan konflik antar anggota di dalamnya.  Terjadinya perceraian dipandang karena ketiadaan konflik dalam hubungan perkawinan (Farrington & Cheertook dalam Boss et al. 1993).  Dalam bentuk yang paling ekstrim, teori konflik sosial yang berlandaskan pada persaingan kekuasaan yang bersumber dari sumberdaya terbatas, mengarahkan pada isu ketidakadilan gender dalam memperoleh sumber kekuasaan.  Gerakan untuk kesetaraan gender dikenal dengan gerakan feminisme.  Kaum feminis memandang keluarga dengan sistem patriarkat (struktur vertikal dengan menempatkan laki-laki sebagai pemimpin) merupakan lembaga yang melestarikan pola relasi hierarkis yang dianggap menindas, memasung hak-hak wanita untuk berkiprah setara dengan pria di bidang publik.  Oleh karenanya penghapusan sistem patriarkat dan vertikal merupakan tujuan utama dari semua gerakan feminisme, melalui penghapusan institusi keluarga atau paling tidak defungsionalisasi keluarga (Megawangi, 1999).

 

Teori Struktural Fungsional

Teori struktural fungsional berlandaskan empat konsep yaitu : sistem, struktur sosial, fungsi, dan keseimbangan.  Teori ini membahas bagaimana perilaku seseoraang dipengaruhi orang lain dan oleh institusi sosial, dan bagaimana perilaku tersebut pada gilirannya mempengaruhi orang lain dalam proses aksi-reaksi berkelanjutan.  Teori ini memandang tidak ada individu dan sistem yang berfungsi secara independen, melainkan dipengaruhi dan pada gilirannya mempengaruhi orang lain atau sistem lain (Winton, 1995), serta mengakui adanya keragaman dalam kehidupan sosial, yang merupakan sumber utama struktur masyarakat (Megawangi, 1999).


[1] Bagian dari tinjauan Pustaka  Disertasi Euis Sunarti. 2001. “Ketahanan Keluarga: Perumusan Ukuran dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Kualitas Kehamilan”

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  • euis sunarti says on: 20/09/2012 at 10:10

     

    Dear Rosilia Bionda,

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    sedemikian terbukanya pemikiran saya tentang keluarga dan apa saja yang akan dialami dilalui oleh yang namanya keluarga..sukses terus ya bu euis…….dan selalu harmonis dengan keluarga terkasih…

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