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Ketangguhan Hadapi Bencana [Kompas] - EUIS SUNARTI

Ketangguhan Hadapi Bencana [Kompas]

April 22nd, 2012

KETANGGUHAN MENGHADAPI BENCANA

Euis Sunarti

Kepala Pusat Studi Bencana LPPM IPB

Rabu, 11 April 2012, sore gempa 8,5 SR berpotensi tsunami kembali melanda Aceh. Kejadian ini mengingatkan dahsyatnya tsunami Aceh-Nias pada akhir 2004 yang menjadi titik balik ”keseriusan” pemerintah membangun sistem nasional penanggulangan bencana.

Keseriusan itu diawali dengan dikeluarkannya Undang-Undang Nomor 24 Tahun 2007 tentang Penanggulangan Bencana. UU ini menempatkan pemerintah sebagai pihak (yang paling) bertanggung jawab dalam penanggulangan bencana.

Namun, sekuat apa pun upaya pemerintah, tetap diperlukan keterlibatan masyarakat. Sebab, masyarakatlah yang berhadapan dan merasakan langsung dampak bencana. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting membangun ketangguhan masyarakat terhadap bencana.

Enam Alasan

Terdapat enam alasan legal dan strategis pentingnya membangun ketangguhan masyarakat terhadap bencana. Pertama karena amanat UU No 24/2007 dan visi program penanggulangan bencana di Indonesia. Juga sesuai strategi PBB dalam pengurangan bencana dan Kerangka Aksi Hyogo, yaitu ”Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters”.

Alasan kedua, walaupun pemerintah bertanggung jawab dalam penanggulangan bencana, pemerintah tidak akan sanggup menanggulangi tanpa partisipasi aktif masyarakat.

Alasan ketiga adalah besarnya persentase kabupaten/kota di Indonesia yang terkategori berisiko tinggi dan sangat tinggi terhadap bencana.

Alasan keempat, besarnya korban serta nilai kerugian dan kerusakan akibat bencana. Mengacu berbagai sumber, Sunarti (2012) mengompilasi beberapa contoh nilai kerugian akibat bencana.

Tsunami Aceh dan Nias (2004) menyebabkan kerugian senilai Rp 48 triliun dan 165.708 orang meninggal. Gempa di Yogyakarta dan Jawa Tengah (2006) menyebabkan 5.715 orang menjadi korban, 306.234 rumah rusak, dan kerugian Rp 29,1 triliun. Sementara tsunami Pangandaran pada 2006 menelan korban 645 jiwa, 1.908 rumah rusak, dan kerugian Rp 1,3 triliun.

Banjir Jakarta pada Februari 2007 menyebabkan 145.742 rumah terendam dan kerugian Rp 5,2 triliun. Gempa bumi di Jawa Barat (2 September 2009) menyebabkan 196.107 orang menjadi korban, 264.000 rumah rusak, dengan kerugian Rp 7,9 triliun. Gempa bumi di Sumatera Barat pada September 2009 menelan korban 1.100 orang, 249.833 rumah rusak, dan kerugian sebesar 21,6 triliun. Sementara letusan Gunung Merapi pada Oktober 2010 menyebabkan 2.682 rumah rusak di DIY dan 174 di Jawa Tengah, dengan kerugian senilai Rp 3,62 triliun.

Alasan kelima, dibutuhkan waktu lama untuk pemulihan pascabencana hingga masyarakat kembali ke kehidupan normal. Akibat tsunami Aceh-Nias, misalnya, diperlukan waktu lima tahun untuk pembangunan rumah korban. Adapun akibat gempa di Jawa Barat, setahun pascagempa kurang dari 20 persen korban yang telah memperbaiki rumahnya. Pembangunan kembali perumahan korban gempa Yogyakarta tahun 2006 relatif cepat, tetapi tidak demikian dengan penyediaan hunian tetap bagi korban letusan Merapi 2010 karena sebagian korban menolak relokasi.

Sementara itu, setelah 15 bulan bencana, pembangunan 964 hunian tetap bagi korban banjir di Wasior, Teluk Wondana, Papua, baru sampai tahap pembebasan lahan. Dana rekonstruksi dan rehabilitasi tahun 2011 sebesar Rp 239 miliar belum dicairkan (data 18 Februari 2012). Kondisi tersebut berdampak pada kehidupan pengungsi. Selain karena hunian sementara mulai rusak, juga ketidaknyamanan, ketidakpastian, dan menghadapi risiko pengusiran dari pemilik lahan yang digunakan sebagai hunian sementara.

Bahkan, di Jepang yang dinilai sebagai negara maju dengan sistem penanggulangan bencana yang lebih baik, satu tahun pascagempa dan tsunami di wilayah Tohoku tercatat masih 344.000 orang tinggal di pengungsian yang sempit. Seperempat bisnis masyarakat belum pulih, bahkan ada yang tidak bisa bangkit lagi.

Bencana menyebabkan gangguan ekonomi keluarga dalam waktu yang cukup lama, yang akhirnya mengganggu keberfungsian keluarga. Sungguh tidak mudah memulihkan penghidupan melalui diversifikasi atau sumber nafkah ganda keluarga karena berkaitan dengan kualitas SDM serta terbatasnya kesempatan, akses, dan sumber daya ekonomi wilayah.

Ekonomi wilayah rawan bencana umumnya tidak beragam, lebih bertumpu pada sektor ekonomi primer dan belum mengembangkan produk yang memiliki nilai tambah yang dapat menyerap tenaga kerja. Kondisi tersebut diperparah oleh penurunan produktivitas pertanian karena berbagai faktor. Interaksi berbagai faktor tersebut yang menunjukkan bahwa bencana dapat menyebabkan dan/atau memperparah kemiskinan (GAR, 2009).

Alasan terakhir, keenam, adalah hasil pembelajaran dari penanganan beberapa bencana di Indonesia. Terlihat bahwa efektivitas penanganan bencana (saat tanggap darurat ataupun pascabencana) berkaitan dengan ketangguhan masyarakat dalam keadaan tidak ada bencana. Pemulihan pascagempa Yogyakarta tahun 2006 di Kabupaten Bantul yang lebih cepat ditengarai berkaitan dengan modal sosial masyarakat sebagai komponen ketangguhan masyarakat dan berinteraksi dengan efektivitas kepemimpinan formal.

Agenda

Ketangguhan merupakan konsep yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan dua hal, yaitu

kekokohan dan kemampuan adaptasi dari sebuah sistem (Suzuki dkk, 2010). Menurut Twig (2007), konsep ketangguhan sangat luas, termasuk kapasitas dan kemampuan merespons dalam situasi krisis/konflik/darurat.

Sebagaimana Twig (2007), Kepala Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) Syamsul Maarif menyatakan bahwa ketangguhan masyarakat terhadap bencana ditunjukkan oleh kemampuan masyarakat dalam mengantisipasi, menahan, beradaptasi, dan memulihkan. Ketangguhan merupakan kebalikan dari kerentanan, di mana kedua konsep tersebut laksana dua sisi mata uang.

Membangun ketangguhan masyarakat terhadap bencana merupakan hal yang seharusnya dilakukan para pemangku kepentingan penanggulangan bencana. Selain BNPB sebagai penjaga gawang penanggulangan bencana di Indonesia, Platform Nasional Pengurangan Risiko Bencana juga perlu meningkatkan peran dan posisi strategisnya dalam mendorong pemangku kepentingan penanggulangan bencana lainnya (perguruan tinggi, swasta, media, LSM) untuk berbagi tugas dan bahu-membahu dalam membangun masyarakat agar tangguh dalam menghadapi bencana.

 

SUMBER : KOMPAS, 12 April 2012

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